Authors, Writers, Publishers, and Book Readers
Every well-written paragraph needs three parts: context, content, and conclusion. These three parts are known collectively as the 3 Cs. When you use the 3 Cs, you present information logically, you help the reader understand your message, and you demonstrate the relevance of your idea.
Context. The first sentence (or two) of a paragraph establishes the context. The context has two purposes:
1. Reveal the single idea that will be discussed, and
2. Demonstrate how the idea relates to the previously discussed idea.
To establish context, first determine the single idea you will discuss next. The first sentence (or two) presents that idea. Second, think about the logical connections between the idea and the previous idea. The first sentence (or two) provides the transition from one idea to the next by demonstrating those connections. Example B1 illustrates how context is established.
[final sentence of a paragraph about nurses’ responsibilities] When nurses fully understand these duties, they can interact as a team to improve patient well-being.
[first sentence, i.e., context, of the next paragraph] A patient may have many needs that a single nurse, or other healthcare provider, cannot address alone.
In example B.1, the first sentence of paragraph two establishes the context for the paragraph that follows. First, it reveals the main idea: patients have multiple needs. Second, it shows the relevance of the main idea to the previous idea. It does this by echoing words or concepts found in the final sentence of the previous paragraph. Here, the first sentence of paragraph two contains the words patient, needs, and single nurse. These words relate to patient, well-being, and team (of nurses) in the final sentence of paragraph one. As a result, the reader will know what to expect from the paragraph, will be able to make sense of the information to follow, and will understand its relevance within the logical flow of ideas.
If you do not establish the context, the reader will have greater difficulty understanding your ideas. The reader may ask, rightly, “Hey, what am I reading about, and why?” The reader may be confused by the information, and you, as the writer, will seem to be presenting unconnected, irrelevant information that can be overlooked or forgotten. In short, you increase reader confusion and reduce the level of communication.
Your job, therefore, is to ensure that each paragraph begins by establishing the context.
Content. Once you have introduced the idea and its relevance, you provide the content. The content is the information about idea, i.e., the body of the paragraph. Each sentence within the body supports the main idea, explains it, and helps the reader understand it. When the body of the paragraph is complete, the reader should have all the necessary information to understand the idea.
Example B.2 begins with the context (from example B.1, in italics) and provides information about the idea.
A patient may have many needs that a single nurse, or other healthcare provider, cannot address alone. For example, the patient may have diverse medical needs, such as examinations and treatments for a host of medical conditions. The patient may also have cultural needs based on the social norms, values, and perspectives of his or her community. Finally, a patient may have emotional needs resulting from the interaction of fear of death and hope for recovery.
Whereas the context in example B.2 introduced the idea that patients have multiple types of needs, the content described those needs. In this sample, the body of the paragraph listed three broad types of needs. Later paragraphs may discuss those needs in greater detail, which would make this entire paragraph the context for the document section.
Three details is not a “magic number.” Provide as much, or as little, information as necessary to discuss the idea fully. Broader ideas require more information. Discrete ideas need less. The idea, therefore, determines the content—and the length of the body. If every sentence in the body helps the reader understand the idea, the body will be the right length.
Your job, therefore, is to provide the information necessary for understanding the idea of the paragraph.
Conclusion. The conclusion is the final sentence (or two) of the paragraph, and it is the most difficult to write. Similar to the context, the conclusion has two purposes:
1. Provide the conclusion, meaning, or purpose of the content, and
2. Create a transition to the following paragraph.
Now that the reader has read the content, what do you want the reader to understand? What should the reader think about or do with the information? What action do you want the reader to perform? In short, what conclusion should the reader reach from the content you have provided? If you have done well with providing the context and content, the reader will be ready to accept your conclusion.
The second function of the conclusion is to create the transition to the next paragraph, which is exactly the same process as creating a transition with the context, though in reverse.
Example B.3 will conclude the paragraph example we’re using to understand the 3 Cs.
A patient may have many needs that a single nurse, or other healthcare provider, cannot address alone. For example, the patient may have diverse medical needs, such as examinations and treatments for a host of medical conditions. The patient may also have cultural needs based on the social norms, values, and perspectives of his or her community. Finally, a patient may have emotional needs resulting from the interaction of fear of death and hope for recovery. To address this diversity of needs, a patient also needs a diverse team of caring, competent healthcare providers who work together to ensure the most positive outcome possible.
The final sentence in Example B.3 concludes the information about types of patient needs. It gives the meaning and value of the content to the reader and makes the argument that patients need multiple caregivers. The reader, having just read about the types of patient needs, will be ready to accept this conclusion.
Your job, therefore, is to help the reader reach a conclusion and make sense of the content.
For every type of genre, but especially for academic and technical writing, the 3 Cs structure not only works but also is necessary if your purpose is to present information clearly, logically, and persuasively.